One of the basic tools of any electronics workshop is the electronic component welder. The function of electronic welding is to fix the components between themselves or on printed circuit boards , and above all ensure their perfect electrical contact.
Different types of welders:
According to the welderstation, The model of welder (also called soldering iron in the American continent) will be of more or less power and with a certain model of tip, depending on the type of components to be welded. However, in general, a pencil-type soldering iron of around 50 Watts can be recommended, and if we are trying to weld electronic components of normal use, a medium or thin point.In any case, and although many recommendations and welders with all kinds of characteristics can be found, it must be one that proves, in principle, with basic welders with a single very important condition, that is of a medium-high quality and Then, if it is deemed necessary, go testing with other models or features until you find the type of welder or tip that best suits our welding technique or needs.
And why not a cheap welder. Basically for three reasons:
The poor quality of the tip of this type of welders will wear out immediately and makes the welding very imprecise.
The low temperature stability of these welders, which makes them vary the conditions in which the tin melts from one weld to the next.
The impossibility of replacing the tip of the welder, no longer as a spare, but to adapt it to the type of welding that we want to perform
The JBC manufacturer is a classic in all types of electronic welding, and in its product catalog we can find from basic welders , very economical and recommended for amateurs or all kinds of uses, to professional welding stations .
But do not rule out some Asian manufacturers such as Yihua or Hakko , with welding stations including pencil-type and hot-air welders, both of adjustable power, with a value for money that I personally can assure you have surprised me, in addition to Have spare parts and accessories that have been practically standardized between different manufacturers. You only need to search for the term "Station 878" on sites like Amazon or eBay To find us, at a very affordable price, even with compatible "white marches".
Model BAKU 878L , with excellent relation quality / price.
Anyway, if you do not intend to spend a lot of money to start practicing and experimenting on your own, you can find soldering / desoldering kits with everything you need at very economical prices, such as that Pictek 60W 220V adjustable temperature welder 200 ° C-450 ° C including the most common accessories and tips .
In addition to the welder, we will need the tin to melt and weld . As with the welder, we must run away from the small rolls of no more than 10 rounds of poor quality tin that can be found in DIY stores or even in Chinese stores. Equally, or perhaps more important than using a medium quality welder, is to use a suitable soldering tin with a resin core and no more than 1 mm. diameter.
The tin that we use must have a shiny silver color, in no case matte. It might seem expensive to spend about 6 euros for a roll of 100 gr. Of quality tin.However, in the long term the result is grateful, and with 100 gr. There is enough to make many welds. This type of tin for electronic welding is actually an alloy of around 60% tin and 40% lead. If you look closely, the inside is hollow and contains a resin that will act as a stripper that when heated prepares the surfaces to be welded and causes the tin and lead alloy to flow correctly when they melt, filling all the holes and making them once solidified Is perfectly attached to the metal surfaces.
The tin that we use must have a shiny silver color, in no case matte. For soldering electronic components is not worth any tin.
To know if a weld is correct you just need to look at its appearance. If it is left in a bright silver color (the same color as the tin with which we weld) and in a conical shape in case of soldering on printed circuit boards or elongated in case of welding between components, the welding is correct.
Appearance of welding done correctly.
If its color is opaque (no gloss) and rounded and with excess tin, the welding is not correct. This type of welding is often called "cold" welding and although the component seems fixed, it does not ensure correct electrical contact, so it will be a source of problems and errors of operation of the electronic circuit.
Examples of failed welds.
The technique to realize a correct weld is summarized in three steps:
- Heat the welding elements with the welder.
- Apply tin in just measure.
- Do not remove the soldering iron until the tin is extended.
- Welding Technique in Electronics.
Although at first it may seem complicated or one thinks that it will never be able to master this technique, with some meters of tin wire, old plates, a medium quality welder and patience to try again and again, anyone can weld electronic components without No problem, and with time and practice, master the technique perfectly.
But as always, see how others do, especially if they have been soldering and desoldering for years, and above all, listening to their comments and advice is worth more than any book or manual written.